SEX-DRIVEN DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INDIVIDUALIZED CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE RISK
N. Saif, H. Hristov, K. Akiyoshi, K. Akiyoshi, I.E. Ariza, N. Malviya, P. Lee, J. Melendez, G. Sadek, K. Hackett, A. Rahman, J. Meléndez-Cabrero, C.E. Greer, L. Mosconi, R. Krikorian, R.S. Isaacson
Background: The Comparative Effectiveness Dementia & Alzheimer’s Registry (CEDAR) trial demonstrated that individualized, multi-domain interventions improved cognition and reduced the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As biological sex is a significant risk factor for AD, it is essential to explore the differential effectiveness of targeted clinical interventions in women vs. men.
Methods: Patients were recruited from an Alzheimer’s Prevention Clinic. Subjects with normal cognition, subjective cognitive decline, or asymptomatic preclinical AD were classified as “Prevention”. Subjects with mild cognitive impairment due to AD or mild AD were classified as “Early Treatment.” The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 18-months on the modified-Alzheimer’s Prevention Cognitive Composite. Secondary outcomes included a cognitive aging composite, AD and cardiovascular (CV) risk scales, and serum biomarkers. Subjects who adhered to >60% of recommendations in the CEDAR trial were included in this a priori sub-group analysis to examine whether individualized intervention effects were modified by sex (n=80).
Results: In the Prevention group, both women (p=0.0205) and men (p=0.0044) demonstrated improvements in cognition with no sex differences (p=0.5244). In the Early Treatment group, there were also no significant sex differences in cognition (p=0.3299). In the Prevention group, women demonstrated greater improvements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis risk score (MESA-RS) than men (difference=1.5, p=0.0013). Women in the Early Treatment group demonstrated greater improvements in CV Risk Factors, Aging and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE) risk score (difference=2.3, p=0.0067), and the MESA-RS (difference=4.1, p<0.001).
Conclusions: Individualized multi-domain interventions are equally effective at improving cognition in women and men. However, personally-tailored interventions led to greater improvements in calculated AD and CV risk, and CV blood biomarkers, in women compared to men. Future study in larger cohorts is necessary to further define sex differences in AD risk reduction in clinical practice.
N. Saif ; H. Hristov ; K. Akiyoshi ; K. Akiyoshi ; I.E. Ariza ; N. Malviya ; P. Lee ; J. Melendez ; G. Sadek ; K. Hackett ; A. Rahman ; J. Meléndez-Cabrero ; C.E. Greer ; L. Mosconi ; R. Krikorian ; R.S. Isaacson ; (2022): Sex-Driven Differences in the Effectiveness of Individualized Clinical Management of Alzheimer’s Disease Risk. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2022.44