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K.J. Mimmack, E.H. Sprague, R.E. Amariglio, P. Vannini, G.A. Marshall, for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

J Prev Alz Dis 2024;4(11):966-974

Background: Declining ability to independently perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is a hallmark of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Financial capacity, an aspect of IADL, includes financial skills such as balancing a checkbook and making change and is potentially sensitive to early decline in cognitive abilities, raising the question of how financial capacity is affected by buildup of cerebral tau and amyloid—hallmarks of AD pathology. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between cerebral tau, amyloid, and their interaction with change in financial capacity over time. Design: Participants were selected from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to have at least one yearly follow-up Financial Capacity Instrument–Short Form (FCI-SF) exam and a flortaucipir (tau) PET scan within 6 months of baseline (and in a subset, a florbetapir (amyloid) PET scan within a year of baseline). Setting: Multi-center international cohort study. Participants: Sample size was 507—322 cognitively normal (CN) and 185 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Sixty-two percent (N=316) had amyloid data. Measurements: Linear mixed-effects models predicted FCI-SF total score from baseline tau, age, gender, premorbid intelligence, executive function, memory, and the interaction of each with time. Regions of interest included inferior temporal, entorhinal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate, supramarginal, and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF). Additional models examined amyloid and its interaction with tau. Results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results: Among the whole sample and in CN participants alone, higher baseline tau in all regions, most prominently in the inferior temporal, entorhinal cortex, and supramarginal regions, was significantly associated with worse performance on the FCI-SF over time. Among MCI participants alone, this relationship was significant in the entorhinal cortex (unstandardized b = 0.27, t = 3.71, adjusted p = 0.001), inferior temporal (b = 0.27, t = 3.96, p < 0.001), precuneus (b = 0.27, t = 3.04, p = 0.01), and supramarginal (b = 0.27, t = 2.74, p = 0.02) regions. Amyloid alone was significantly associated with worse FCI-SF performance in only the whole sample (b = 0.15, t = 2.37, p = 0.04), and a three-way interaction between tau, amyloid, and time was only present for entorhinal cortex tau in CN individuals (b = -1.61, t = -2.61, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Early tau accumulation is linked to worsening financial capacity over time in CN older adults and MCI. Declining financial capacity may signal pathological buildup and serve as an early warning sign for AD, and future research should continue to investigate the longitudinal relationship between tau, financial capacity, and other IADL.

K.J. Mimmack ; E.H. Sprague ; R.E. Amariglio ; P. Vannini ; G.A. Marshall ; for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2023): Longitudinal Evolution of Financial Capacity and Cerebral Tau and Amyloid Burden in Older Adults with Normal Cognition or Mild Cognitive Impairment. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD).

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