jpad journal

AND option

OR option


Back to all journals

journal articles


S.C. Brown, W.W. Aitken, J. Lombard, A. Parrish, J.R. Dewald, R. Ma, S. Messinger, S. Liu, M.I. Nardi, T. Rundek, J. Szapocznik

J Prev Alz Dis 2024;3(11):710-720

BACKGROUND: The potential for greenness as a novel protective factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requires further exploration. OBJECTIVES: This study assesses prospectively and longitudinally the association between precision greenness - greenness measured at the micro-environmental level, defined as the Census block - and AD incidence. DESIGN: Older adults living in consistently high greenness Census blocks across 2011 and 2016 were compared to those living in consistently low greenness blocks on AD incidence during 2012-2016. SETTING: Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 230,738 U.S. Medicare beneficiaries. MEASUREMENTS: U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Chronic Condition Algorithm for AD based on ICD-9 codes, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, age, sex, race/ethnicity, neighborhood income, and walkability. RESULTS: Older adults living in the consistently high greenness tertile, compared to those in the consistently low greenness tertile, had 16% lower odds of AD incidence (OR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.94, p=0.0014), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood income. Age, neighborhood income and walkability moderated greenness’ relationship to odds of AD incidence, such that younger ages (65-74), lower-income, and non-car dependent neighborhoods may benefit most from high greenness. CONCLUSIONS: High greenness, compared to low greenness, is associated with lower 5-year AD incidence. Residents who are younger and/or who reside in lower-income, walkable neighborhoods may benefit the most from high greenness. These findings suggest that consistently high greenness at the Census block-level, may be associated with reduced odds of AD incidence at a population level.

S.C. Brown ; W.W. Aitken ; J. Lombard ; A. Parrish ; J.R. Dewald ; R. Ma ; S. Messinger ; S. Liu ; M.I. Nardi ; T. Rundek ; J. Szapocznik (2024): Longitudinal Impacts of Precision Greenness on Alzheimer’s Disease. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD).


Download PDF (1.32 Mo)View HTML