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F.G. Boess, M.A. Scelsi, T. Grimmer, R.J. Perry, M. Tonietto, G. Klein, C. Hofmann, M. Salami, J. Wojtowicz, C.J. Lansdall, C. Lane, G.A. Kerchner, J. Smith, R.S. Doody, for the GRADUATION Investigators and the gantenerumab study group

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies that target amyloid-beta and remove amyloid plaques can slow cognitive and functional decline in early Alzheimer’s disease. Gantenerumab is a subcutaneously administered fully-human anti-amyloid-beta monoclonal antibody with highest affinity for aggregated amyloid-beta. Since the phase 3 GRADUATE trials did not meet the primary endpoint (change from baseline to Week 116 in Clinical Dementia Rating scale – Sum of Boxes), development of gantenerumab in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease was stopped and all ongoing trials were terminated early due to sponsor decision. Subcutaneous administration at the clinic or at home by care partner would be an important option for other therapies in this class in order to increase flexibility and reduce overall burden. The insights obtained from the experience with gantenerumab home administration by care partner in the phase 2 GRADUATION trial will serve to guide the ongoing efforts with other anti-amyloid-beta antibodies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmacodynamic effects on brain amyloid load of once weekly subcutaneous administration of gantenerumab and the safety and feasibility of home administration by care partners. DESIGN: Phase 2, open-label, single arm study. SETTING: Multicenter trial conducted in 33 sites in 8 countries from November 2020 to March 2023. PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged 50 to 90 with early symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (mild cognitive impairment/mild dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease), and evidence of amyloid positron emission tomography positivity. INTERVENTION: Participants could receive up to 255 mg gantenerumab once-weekly, administered subcutaneously at site or at home by healthcare professionals or non-healthcare-professional care partners. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to Week 52 and to Week 104 in brain amyloid load as measured by PET centiloid levels. The secondary endpoints were responses to the home administration questionnaire, plasma concentrations and safety. RESULTS: The overall number of participants enrolled was 192, with a mean (standard deviation) amyloid PET load at baseline of 101.80 (29.80) centiloids. At the time of early study termination by sponsor, 149 participants had valid Week 52 amyloid PET data (primary endpoint), and 12 participants had an early termination PET within the pre-defined time range of Week 104. The mean change in amyloid PET from baseline to Week 52 and Week 104 was -26.19 centiloids (range: -75.6–15.8; n=149) and -35.48 centiloids (range: -63.2–-7.0; n=12), respectively. Responses to the home administration questionnaire at Week 52 (n=148) indicated that the majority of care partners (88-97%) considered administration of study drug at home easy (30.4%) or very easy (57.4%), and convenient (25.7%) or very convenient (70.9%). Care partners felt confident (31.1%) or very confident (62.2%) and satisfied (29.7%) or very satisfied (64.9%) with giving the injection at home. Responses by care partners at Week 36 (n=72), Week 76 (n=126) and Week 104 (n=29) and participant (patient) assessment of convenience and satisfaction at these time points were similar. There were no new safety findings associated with gantenerumab administered subcutaneously once weekly at 255 mg or safety issues associated with at-home injections by non-healthcare professional care partners. CONCLUSIONS: Once-weekly subcutaneous home administration of the anti-amyloid-beta antibody gantenerumab by non-healthcare-professional care partners to participants with early Alzheimer’s disease was feasible, safe, well tolerated, and considered as a convenient option by both the care partners and participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Although gantenerumab’s development has been stopped due to lack of efficacy, this approach has the potential to reduce the frequency of hospital/outpatient clinic visits required for treatment with other anti-amyloid-β antibodies and can increase flexibility of drug administration for people living with Alzheimer’s disease and their families.

F.G. Boess ; M.A. Scelsi ; T. Grimmer ; R.J. Perry ; M. Tonietto ; G. Klein ; C. Hofmann ; M. Salami ; J. Wojtowicz ; C.J. Lansdall ; C. Lane ; G.A. Kerchner ; J. Smith ; R.S. Doody ; for the GRADUATION Investigators and the gantenerumab study group ; (2024): At-Home Administration of Gantenerumab by Care Partners to People with Early Alzheimer’s Disease: Feasibility, Safety and Pharmacodynamic Impact. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD).

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