MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS FOR ACCELERATED DECLINE IN PROCESSING SPEED: RESULTS FROM THREE DUTCH POPULATION COHORTS
E. Jaarsma, A. Nooyens, A.A.L. Kok, S. Köhler, M. van Boxtel, W.M.M. Verschuren, M. Huisman
J Prev Alz Dis 2024;1(11):108-116
BACKGROUND: Several lifestyle, cardiovascular and psychosocial factors are associated with risk of cognitive decline and dementia. We studied the independent associations of a broad set of modifiable risk factors with decline in processing speed in three large population-based cohorts with up to 23 years of follow-up.
METHODS: We used data of 9,666 participants from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, and the Maastricht Aging Study. Decline in processing speed was measured with the letter digit substitution task or the alphabet coding task and modeled using quadratic latent growth curves. Associations of modifiable risk factors with level and rate of decline in processing speed were investigated by estimating associations with level of processing speed at different centering ages.
RESULTS: Latent growth curves showed that decline in processing speed accelerated with age. Smoking, not drinking alcohol and depressive symptoms were associated with a lower level of processing speed in all cohorts. In two of the cohorts, more physical activity, drinking more than two glasses of alcohol per day, higher BMI and diabetes were associated with a lower level of processing speed. Depressive symptoms and diabetes were also associated with faster decline in processing speed.
CONCLUSION: Several modifiable risk factors are associated with the level of processing speed in older age, while few are also related to the rate of decline.
E. Jaarsma ; A. Nooyens ; A.A.L. Kok ; S. Köhler ; M. van Boxtel ; W.M.M. Verschuren ; M. Huisman ; (2023): Modifiable Risk Factors for Accelerated Decline in Processing Speed: Results from Three Dutch Population Cohorts. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2023.64