FIBRIN-TARGETING IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR DEMENTIA
A.B. Kantor, K. Akassoglou, J.B. Stavenhagen
J Prev Alz Dis 2023;4(10):647-660
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is an early event in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. It precedes extracellular deposition of amyloid-β in senile plaques and blood vessel walls, the intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles containing phosphorylated tau protein, microglial activation, and neuronal cell death. BBB disruption allows the coagulation protein fibrinogen to leak from the blood into the brain, where it is converted by thrombin cleavage into fibrin and deposits in the parenchyma and CNS vessels. Fibrinogen cleavage by thrombin exposes a cryptic epitope termed P2 which can bind CD11b and CD11c on microglia, macrophages and dendritic cells and trigger an inflammatory response toxic to neurons. Indeed, genetic and pharmacological evidence demonstrates a causal role for fibrin in innate immune cell activation and the development of neurodegenerative diseases. The P2 inflammatory epitope is spatially and compositionally distinct from the coagulation epitope on fibrin. Mouse monoclonal antibody 5B8, which targets the P2 epitope without interfering with the clotting process, has been shown to reduce neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. The selectivity and efficacy of this anti-human fibrin-P2 antibody in animal models supports the development of a monoclonal antibody drug targeting fibrin P2 for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. THN391 is a humanized, affinity-matured antibody which has a 100-fold greater affinity for fibrin P2 and improved development properties compared to the parental 5B8 antibody. It is currently in a Phase 1 clinical trial.
A.B. Kantor ; K. Akassoglou ; J.B. Stavenhagen (2023): Fibrin-Targeting Immunotherapy for Dementia. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2023.105