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C. Cervellati, A. Vergallo, A. Trentini, G. Campo, F. Vieceli Dalla Sega, P. Rizzo, G. Bonaccorsi, V. Rosta, C. Renzini, S. Pacifico, A. Passaro, H. Hampel, G. Zuliani

J Prev Alz Dis 2022;4(9):708-714

Background: Increasing evidence indicates that β-secretase 1 (BACE1) activity and concentration in blood are candidate biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Investigating potential demographic, biological, and clinical determinants of BACE1 in the blood matrix is the critical step to validate and qualify BACE1 bio-indicators for different contexts-of-use (CoU), such as risk assessment, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, management of AD, and outcome of amyloid pathway targeted drugs. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of age, sex, HDL-cholesterol and comorbidities (cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes) on circulating BACE-1 activity. Design: prospective analysis of serum samples, clinical, biological, and demographic variables. Setting: Three cohorts: 1) Memory Clinic of the Department of Internal Medicine, S. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara (Italy); 2) outpatients attending the Menopause and Osteoporosis Centre (MOC) of the University of Ferrara (Ferrara, Italy); 3) Prevention Center of the University of Ferrara. Participants: 504 cognitively healthy individuals (median age: 62 years, interquartile range: 51-73) and 175 patients with AD (78 years, 74-82). Measurements: serum BACE1 (sBACE1), age, sex, HDL-cholesterol, major comorbidities. Results: Age was the strongest independent predictor of sBACE1 variance (β=0.425, p<0.0001), followed by sex (β=0.180, p<0.0001), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (β=-0.168, p<0.0001) and hypertension (β=0.111, p<0.05) (overall model, R2: 0.232). The probability of having elevated sBACE1 activity increased after 70 years of age, with women being more susceptible to higher sBACE1 activity than men. Conclusions: We provide evidence about potential clinical and biological determinants of sBACE1 activity with a strong association among biomarker, female sex, and older age.

C. Cervellati ; A. Vergallo ; A. Trentini ; G. Campo ; F. Vieceli Dalla Sega ; P. Rizzo ; G. Bonaccorsi ; V. Rosta ; C. Renzini ; S. Pacifico ; A. Passaro ; H. Hampel ; G. Zuliani ; ; (2022): Age, Sex, Hypertension and HDL-C Alter Serum BACE1 Activity in Cognitively Normal Subjects: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD).

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