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DONANEMAB (LY3002813) PHASE 1B STUDY IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: RAPID AND SUSTAINED REDUCTION OF BRAIN AMYLOID MEASURED BY FLORBETAPIR F18 IMAGING

S.L Lowe, C. Duggan Evans, S. Shcherbinin, Y.-J. Cheng, B.A. Willis, I. Gueorguieva, A.C. Lo, A.S. Fleisher, J.L. Dage, P. Ardayfio, G. Aguiar, M. Ishibai, G. Takaichi, L. Chua, G. Mullins, J.R. Sims, on behalf of AACD Investigators

J Prev Alz Dis 2021;4(8):414-424

Background: Donanemab (LY3002813) is an IgG1 antibody directed at an N‑terminal pyroglutamate of amyloid beta epitope that is present only in brain amyloid plaques. Objectives: To assess effects of donanemab on brain amyloid plaque load after single and multiple intravenous doses, as well as pharmacokinetics, safety/tolerability, and immunogenicity. Design: Phase 1b, investigator- and patient-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Setting: Patients recruited at clinical research sites in the United States and Japan. Participants: 61 amyloid plaque-positive patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Intervention: Six cohorts were dosed with donanemab: single dose 10-, 20- or 40- mg/kg (N = 18), multiple doses of 10-mg/kg every 2 weeks for 24 weeks (N = 10), and 10- or 20-mg/kg every 4 weeks for 72 weeks (N=18) or placebo (N = 15). Measurements: Brain amyloid plaque load, using florbetapir positron emission tomography, was assessed up to 72 weeks. Safety was evaluated by occurrence of adverse events, magnetic resonance imaging, electrocardiogram, vital signs, laboratory testing, neurological monitoring, and immunogenicity. Results: Treatment with donanemab resulted in rapid reduction of amyloid, even after a single dose. By 24 weeks, amyloid positron emission tomography mean changes from baseline for single donanemab doses in Centiloids were: -16.5 (standard error 11.22) 10-mg/kg intravenous; 40.0 (standard error 11.23) 20 mg/kg intravenous; and -49.6 (standard error 15.10) 40-mg/kg intravenous. Mean reduction of amyloid plaque in multiple dose cohorts by 24 weeks in Centiloids were: 55.8 (standard error 9.51) 10-mg/kg every 2 weeks; -50.2 (standard error 10.54) 10-mg/kg every 4 weeks; and -58.4 (standard error 9.66) 20-mg/kg every 4 weeks. Amyloid on average remained below baseline levels up to 72 weeks after a single dose of donanemab. Repeated dosing resulted in continued florbetapir positron emission tomography reductions over time compared to single dosing with 6 out of 28 patients attaining complete amyloid clearance within 24 weeks. Within these, 5 out of 10 patients in the 20 mg/kg every 4 weeks cohort attained complete amyloid clearance within 36 weeks. When dosing with donanemab was stopped after 24 weeks of repeat dosing in the 10 mg every 2 weeks cohort, florbetapir positron emission tomography reductions were sustained up to 72 weeks. For the single dose cohorts on day 1, dose proportional increases in donanemab pharmacokinetics were observed from 10 to 40 mg/kg. Dose proportional increases in pharmacokinetics were also observed at steady state with the multiple dose cohorts. Donanemab clearance was comparable across the dose levels. Mean donanemab elimination-half-life following 20 mg/kg single dose was 9.3 days with range of 5.6 to 16.2 days. Greater than 90% of patients had positive treatment-emergent antidrug antibodies with donanemab. However, overall, the treatment-emergent antidrug antibodies did not have a significant impact on pharmacokinetics. Donanemab was generally well tolerated. Amongst the 46 participants treated with donanemab, the following amyloid-related imaging abnormalities, common to the drug class, were observed: 12 vasogenic cerebral edema events (12 [19.7%] patients), 10 cerebral microhemorrhage events (6 [13.0%] patients), and 2 superficial siderosis events (2 [4.3%] patients). Conclusions: Single and multiple doses of donanemab demonstrated a rapid, robust, and sustained reduction up to 72 weeks in brain amyloid plaque despite treatment-emergent antidrug antibodies detected in most patients. Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities were the most common treatment-emergent event.

CITATION:
S.L Lowe ; C. Duggan Evans ; S. Shcherbinin ; Y.-J. Cheng ; B.A. Willis ; I. Gueorguieva ; A.C. Lo ; A.S. Fleisher ; J.L. Dage ; P. Ardayfio ; G. Aguiar ; M. Ishibai ; G. Takaichi ; L. Chua ; G. Mullins ; J.R. Sims ; (2021): Donanemab (LY3002813) Phase 1b Study in Alzheimer’s Disease: Rapid and Sustained Reduction of Brain Amyloid Measured by Florbetapir F18 Imaging. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2021.56

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