COMPARATIVE EFFICACY, SAFETY, TOLERABILITY, AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIPSYCHOTICS IN THE TREATMENT OF DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS (DRP): A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW
I. Yunusa, N. Rashid, V. Abler, K. Rajagopalan
J Prev Alz Dis 2021;4(8):520-533
Objectives: To evaluate the comparative efficacy, safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) for the treatment of dementia related psychosis (DRP) in older adults.
Methods: In this systematic literature review (SLR), we qualitatively synthesized evidence on the comparative efficacy (based on neuropsychiatric inventory), tolerability (weight gain), and safety (cerebrovascular adverse events [CVAE], cardiovascular events, mortality, somnolence, extrapyramidal symptoms [EPS]) of AAPs used to treat DRP. We also assessed effectiveness based on all-cause discontinuations and discontinuations due to lack of efficacy or adverse events (AE). Published articles from through March 2021 from PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases evaluated. We included double-blind, active-comparator/placebo-controlled randomized trials, open-label trials, and observational studies.
Results: This qualitative synthesis included 51 eligible studies with sample size of 13,334 and mean age of 79.36 years. Risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole demonstrated numerically small improvement in psychotic symptoms among patients with DRP. Somnolence was the most reported AE for all the AAPs, with weight gain and tardive dyskinesia more common with olanzapine and risperidone, respectively. These AAPs are associated with falls, EPS, cognitive declines, CVAE, and mortality. Aripiprazole and olanzapine had lower odds of discontinuation due to lack of efficacy, with olanzapine having greater discontinuation odds due to AEs.
Conclusion: This SLR demonstrated that AAPs used off-label to treat DRP are associated with small numerical symptom improvement but with a high risk of AEs, including cognitive decline and potentially higher mortality. These results underscore the need for new treatments with a favorable benefit-risk profile for treating DRP.
I. Yunusa ; N. Rashid ; V. Abler ; K. Rajagopalan (2021): Comparative Efficacy, Safety, Tolerability, and Effectiveness of Antipsychotics in The Treatment of Dementia-Related Psychosis (DRP): A Systematic Literature Review. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2021.48