DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: CLINICAL PRACTICE IN 2021
A.P. Porsteinsson, R.S. Isaacson, S. Knox, M.N. Sabbagh, I. Rubino
J Prev Alz Dis 2021;3(8):371-386
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease impacting cognition, function, and behavior. Alzheimer’s disease progresses along a continuum from preclinical disease, to mild cognitive and/or behavioral impairment and then Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Recently, clinicians have been encouraged to diagnose Alzheimer’s earlier, before patients have progressed to Alzheimer’s disease dementia. The early and accurate detection of Alzheimer’s disease-associated symptoms and underlying disease pathology by clinicians is fundamental for the screening, diagnosis, and subsequent management of Alzheimer’s disease patients. It also enables patients and their caregivers to plan for the future and make appropriate lifestyle changes that could help maintain their quality of life for longer. Unfortunately, detecting early-stage Alzheimer’s disease in clinical practice can be challenging and is hindered by several barriers including constraints on clinicians’ time, difficulty accurately diagnosing Alzheimer’s pathology, and that patients and healthcare providers often dismiss symptoms as part of the normal aging process. As the prevalence of this disease continues to grow, the current model for Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis and patient management will need to evolve to integrate care across clinical disciplines and the disease continuum, beginning with primary care. This review summarizes the importance of establishing an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, related practical ‘how-to’ guidance and considerations, and tools that can be used by healthcare providers throughout the diagnostic journey.
A.P. Porsteinsson ; R.S. Isaacson ; S. Knox ; M.N. Sabbagh ; I. Rubino ; (2021): Diagnosis of Early Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical Practice in 2021. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2021.23