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J. Wang, H. Huang, W. Yang, A. Dove, X. Ma, W. Xu

J Prev Alz Dis 2024;4(11):1140-1147

BACKGROUND: Resting heart rate (RHR), has been related to increased risk of dementia, but the relationship between RHR and brain age is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of RHR with brain age and brain age gap (BAG, the difference between predicted brain age and chronological age) assessed by multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in mid- and old-aged adults. DESIGN: A longitudinal study from the UK Biobank neuroimaging project where participants underwent brain MRI scans 9+ years after baseline. SETTING: A population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 33,381 individuals (mean age 54.74 ± 7.49 years; 53.44% female). MEASUREMENTS: Baseline RHR was assessed by blood pressure monitor and categorized as <60, 60–69 (reference), 70–79, or ≥80 beats per minute (bpm). Brain age was predicted using LASSO through 1,079 phenotypes in six MRI modalities (including T1-weighted MRI, T2-FLAIR, T2*, diffusion-MRI, task fMRI, and resting-state fMRI). Data were analyzed using linear regression models. RESULTS: As a continuous variable, higher RHR was associated with older brain age (β for per 1-SD increase: 0.331, 95% [95% confidence interval, CI]: 0.265, 0.398) and larger BAG (β: 0.263, 95% CI: 0.202, 0.324). As a categorical variable, RHR 70-79 bpm and RHR ≥80 bpm were associated with older brain age (β [95% CI]: 0.361 [0.196, 0.526] / 0.737 [0.517, 0.957]) and larger BAG (0.256 [0.105, 0.407] / 0.638 [0.436, 0.839]), but RHR< 60 bpm with younger brain age (-0.324 [-0.500, -0.147]) and smaller BAG (-0.230 [-0.392, -0.067]), compared to the reference group. These associations between elevated RHR and brain age were similar in both middle-aged (<60) and older (≥60) adults, whereas the association of RHR< 60 bpm with younger brain age and larger BAG was only significant among middle-aged adults. In stratification analysis, the association between RHR ≥80 bpm and older brain age was present in people with and without CVDs, while the relation of RHR 70-79 bpm to brain age present only in people with CVD. CONCLUSION: Higher RHR (>80 bpm) is associated with older brain age, even among middle-aged adults, but RHR< 60 bpm is associated with younger brain age. Greater RHR could be an indicator for accelerated brain aging.

J. Wang ; H. Huang ; W. Yang ; A. Dove ; X. Ma ; W. Xu (2024): Association between Resting Heart Rate and Machine Learning-Based Brain Age in Middle- and Older-Age. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD).


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