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Y.J. Leow, J.D.J. Wang, A. Vipin, G.K. Sandhu, S.A. Soo, D. Kumar, A.A. Mohammed, F.Z.B. Zailan, F.P.H.E. Lee, S. Ghildiyal, S.Y. Liew, C. Dang, P. Tanoto, I.Y.Z. Tan, W.F.W. Chong, N. Kandiah

J Prev Alz Dis 2024;4(11):1093-1105

BACKGROUND: The focus of medicine is shifting from treatment to preventive care. The expression of biomarkers of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) appear decades before the onset of observable symptoms, and evidence has emerged supporting pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to treat modifiable risk factors of dementia. However, there is limited research on the epidemiology, clinical phenotypes, and underlying pathobiology of cognitive diseases in Asian populations. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the Biomarkers and Cognition Study, Singapore(BIOCIS) are to characterize the underlying pathobiology of Cognitive Impairment through a longitudinal study incorporating fluid biomarker profiles, neuroimaging, neuropsychological and clinical outcomes in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: BIOCIS is a 5-year longitudinal study where participants are assessed annually. 2500 participants aged 30 to 95 will be recruited from the community in Singapore. To investigate how pathology presents with or without minimal clinical symptoms and vice versa, CI and unimpaired individuals will be recruited. Participants will undergo assessments to characterise biomarkers of dementia through neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers, cognitive assessments, behavioural and lifestyle profiles, retinal scans and microbiome indicators. RESULTS: Since commencement of recruitment in February 2022, 1148 participants have been enrolled, comprising 1012 Chinese, 62 Indian, and 35 Malay individuals. Mean age and education is 61.32 years and 14.34 years respectively with 39.8% males. 47.9 % of the cohort are employed and 32.06% have a family history of dementia. The prevalence of cerebral small vessel disease is 90.2% with a mean modified Fazekas white matter hyperintensity score of 4.1. CONCLUSION: The BIOCIS cohort will help identify novel biomarkers, pathological trajectories, epidemiology of dementia, and reversible risk factors in a Southeast Asian population. Completion of BIOCIS longitudinal data could provide insights into risk-stratification of Asians populations, and potentially inform public healthcare and precision medicine for better patient outcomes in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

Y.J. Leow ; J.D.J. Wang ; A. Vipin ; G.K. Sandhu ; S.A. Soo ; D. Kumar ; A.A. Mohammed ; F.Z.B. Zailan ; F.P.H.E. Lee ; S. Ghildiyal ; S.Y. Liew ; C. Dang ; P. Tanoto ; I.Y.Z. Tan ; W.F.W. Chong ; N. Kandiah (2024): Biomarkers and Cognition Study, Singapore (BIOCIS): Protocol, Study Design, and Preliminary Findings. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD).


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