M. Senda1, K. Ishii2, K. Ito3, T. Ikeuchi4, H. Matsuda5, T. Iwatsubo6, A. Iwata7, R. Ihara7, K. Suzuki8, K. Kasuga4, Y. Ikari1,9, Y. Niimi6, H. Arai10, A. Tamaoka11, Y. Arahata3, Y. Itoh12, H. Tachibana13, Y. Ichimiya14, S. Washizuka15, T. Odawara16, K. Ishii17, K. Ono18, T. Yokota19, A. Nakanishi20, E. Matsubara21, H. Mori12, H. Shimada12
1. Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Japan; 2. Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Japan; 3. National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Japan; 4. Niigata University, Japan; 5. National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan; (currently, Southern Tohoku Drug Development and Cyclotron Research Center, Japan); 6. The University of Tokyo, Japan; 7. The University of Tokyo, Japan; (currently, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Japan); 8. The University of Tokyo, Japan; (currently, National Defense Medical College, Japan); 9. Osaka University, Japan; 10. Tohoku University, Japan; 11. University of Tsukuba, Japan; 12. Osaka City University, Japan; 13. Kobe University, Japan; 14. Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Japan; 15. Shinshu University, Japan; 16. Yokohama City University, Japan; 17. Kindai University, Japan; 18. Showa University, Japan; 19. Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan; 20. Osaka City Kosaiin Hospital, Japan; 21. Oita University, Japan
Corresponding Author: Michio Senda, Division of Molecular Imaging Research Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital (KCGH), 2-1-1 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047 Japan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Phone: 81-78-304-5212, Fax: 81-78-304-5201.
BACKGROUND: PET (positron emission tomography) and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) provide the “ATN” (Amyloid, Tau, Neurodegeneration) classification and play an essential role in early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers were evaluated in a Japanese multicenter study on cognitively unimpaired subjects (CU) and early (E) and late (L) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients.
MEASUREMENTS: A total of 38 (26 CU, 7 EMCI, 5 LMCI) subjects with the age of 65-84 were enrolled. Amyloid-PET and FDG-PET as well as structural MRI were acquired on all of them, with an additional tau-PET with 18F-flortaucipir on 15 and CSF measurement of Aβ1-42, P-tau, and T-tau on 18 subjects. Positivity of amyloid and tau was determined based on the positive result of either PET or CSF.
RESULTS: The amyloid positivity was 13/38, with discordance between PET and CSF in 6/18. Cortical tau deposition quantified with PET was significantly correlated with CSF P-tau, in spite of discordance in the binary positivity between visual PET interpretation and CSF P-tau in 5/8 (PET-/CSF+). Tau was positive in 7/9 amyloid positive and 8/16 amyloid negative subjects who underwent tau measurement, respectively. Overall, a large number of subjects presented quantitative measures and/or visual read that are close to the borderline of binary positivity, which caused, at least partly, the discordance between PET and CSF in amyloid and/or tau. Nine subjects presented either tau or FDG-PET positive while amyloid was negative, suggesting the possibility of non-AD disorders.
CONCLUSION: Positivity rate of amyloid and tau, together with their relationship, was consistent with previous reports. Multicenter study on subjects with very mild or no cognitive impairment may need refining the positivity criteria and cutoff level as well as strict quality control of the measurements.
Key words: Alzheimer’s disease, PET, CSF biomarker, amyloid, tau.
Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been drawing more and more attention these days as the target population of the therapeutic trials has shifted toward the early phases of the AD continuum. Biomarkers including PET, MRI and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)/plasma play an essential role in such early phases, where clinical manifestation and behavioral findings are limited. Jack et al (1) extracted three markers, i.e., amyloid (A), tau (T) and neurodegeneration (N), and proposed the “ATN” classification for differential diagnosis of AD continuum. PET provides imaging and quantification of amyloid and tau deposition as well as neurodegeneration evaluable with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)-PET. Amyloid and tau can also be evaluated with CSF sampling, and recently with plasma as well, and MRI volumetry has also been used as a marker of neurodegeneration.
In Japan, a large-scale prospective observational study called J-ADNI (Japanese Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative) was completed (2), in which a total of 537 subjects were enrolled, comprising 154 cognitively unimpaired subjects (CU), 234 MCI and 149 AD patients.
Then, a new version of J-ADNI was designed by the same group, named “AMED Preclinical AD Study”, which focused on CU and MCI and acquired amyloid-PET and FDG-PET on all subjects. Part of the subjects also underwent a tau-PET scan and/or a CSF sampling. The objective of the study was to evaluate PET and MRI images and CSF biomarkers in CU and MCI subjects in Japan, compare those biomarkers between modalities to explore their reliability and usefulness in such early-phase subjects, and obtain a rough idea of the fractions of ATN-based classifications. This report summarizes the results of the study that was recently completed.
The study was a non-randomized prospective observational study, and was designed and conducted in accordance with the ethical principles as proclaimed in the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was first approved by Ethical Committee of Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine (site of leading PI) and registered as UMIN000019926, and was later re-approved by Osaka City University Hospital Certified Review Board when the Japanese Law on Clinical Research was enacted, and was registered as jRCTs051180239. The protocol was also approved by each participating site according to the Japanese regulations and ethics guidance. The tau-PET portion of the study was designed as a nominally separate add-on study when tau-PET became available, though limited, later in the course of the research project, and was approved and registered as jRCTs051190065.
The subjects were enrolled at a total of 14 clinical sites and consisted of 26 CU subjects and 12 MCI patients (7 early (E) MCI and 5 late (L) MCI as classified below) based on the neuropsychological tests.
Written informed consent was obtained from each subject and the study partner such as a family member of the subject.
The CU subjects were 65-82 years old without any memory problem and CDR-J=0. The MMSE-J score was 25-30 (higher than or equal to 24), and the delayed recall score of WMS-R logical memory (WMS-R LM II) ranged from 4 to 19 except for one subject (See footnote of Table 1).
The MCI subjects were 65-84 years old with objective persistent memory impairment reported by the study partner and CDR-J=0.5 with memory box score being 0.5 or higher. The MMSE-J score was 27-30 (higher than or equal to 24). The WMS-R LM II was used to classify the MCI subjects into EMCI (WMS-R LM II = 3-6, 5-9, 9-11) and LMCI (≤2, ≤4, ≤8) depending on the educational years (0-7, 8-15, ≥16 years, respectively), and was 6-18 for EMCI and 0-8 for LMCI.
CSF measurements and genotyping
CSF was collected from 18 subjects by lumbar puncture and stored in polypropylene tubes at -80℃ until biochemical analysis. CSF concentration of Aβ1-42 was analyzed using V-PLEX Aβ Peptide Panel 1 kit with MESO QuickPlex SQ120 (MesoScale Discovery, Rockville, MD). CSF phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and total tau (T-tau) were measured using commercially available ELISA kits, INNOTEST hTAU and PHOSPHO-TAU (181P) (Fujirebio Europe, Belgium), respectively, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Stability of the results was monitored in the Alzheimer’s Association QC program. Cutoff values (Aβ42<378.7 pg/mL, P-tau>29.1 pg/mL, and T-tau>88.8 pg/mL) that best discriminated PiB-PET positive AD patients from PiB-PET negative CU subjects were determined using independent J-ADNI cohort (2). Because the CSF assays used in this study were different from those used in J-ADNI study, calibration between two assays were performed.
APOE genotyping (rs429358 and rs7412) was performed by Taq-Man based assay using blood samples.
The brain MRI was acquired for each subject using a 3-Tesla or 1.5-Tesla scanner. The structural 3D-T1 images (MP-RAGE or IR-SPGR) were analyzed with FreeSurfer (Ver. 6.0) to measure the regional cerebral gray-matter volumes. Because the absolute volumetry depends on the version of the software and other conditions, the regional atrophy of the subject was derived as z-score using mean and SD of the baseline scan for the 26 CU subjects of this study. The volume of 8 regions in the temporal lobe (right and left entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and amygdala) were summed up and the z score was derived as a measure of the temporal lobe atrophy for each subject.
PET image acquisition
All subjects underwent an amyloid-PET and an FDG-PET. Each PET imaging site, together with the PET camera, was qualified, in which the reconstruction parameters were determined for each PET camera so that all the PET cameras satisfied the image quality criteria with the Hoffman 3D brain phantom and the uniform cylindrical phantom (3).
For amyloid PET, either 11C-PiB (PiB), 18F-florbetapir (FBP) or 18F-flutemetamol (FMM) was used for 23, 13, and 2 subjects, respectively. The injection activity was 555MBq, 370MBq, 185MBq, the uptake time (start of emission scan post injection) was 50min, 50min, 90min, and the scan duration was 20min, 20min, 30min, for PiB, FBP, and FMM, respectively.
For the FDG scan, after at least 4 hours of fasting, the subject was administered with 185 MBq of 18F-FDG in a quiet, dimly lit room while resting in a reclining chair or bed, and the subject remained in the condition until several minutes before the start of the scanning session. The PET emission data was acquired for 30 minutes starting at 30 minutes post injection.
Tau-PET was performed with 18F-flortaucipir (FTP) on 15 subjects. Because tau-PET was not ready until late in the course of the research project, the time span from amyloid to tau-PET ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 (mean 1.56) years. The subject was administered with 240.5 MBq of FTP and a 30 min emission scan started 75 min post injection.
No adverse effects were observed at the PET scans of this study.
PET image analysis
The amyloid PET images were binary interpreted visually in a blind manner by the readers who were qualified for this study, and the adjudicator (K.I.) confirmed them. The PiB images were interpreted visually using the criteria adopted in J-ADNI (4), and the FMM and FBP images were interpreted with each vendor’s criteria.
As a quantitative analysis of the amyloid PET, mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (mcSUVR) of PiB images was computed using the cerebellar cortex as a reference based on the method of J-ADNI, and the cutoff value of 1.5 was used to determine the quantitative positivity (4). The FMM images were analyzed with CORTEX ID (GE Healthcare) to derive mcSUVR using the pons as a reference, for which the cutoff value of 0.58 was used for the quantitative positivity (5). The FBP images were analyzed with MIMneuro (MIM Software) to derive mcSUVR using the whole cerebellum as a reference, for which the cutoff value of 1.10 was used for the quantitative positivity (6).
The FDG images together with the semiquantitative 3D-SSP results were visually interpreted by three independent readers followed by a consensus read in the same way as J-ADNI (7), and the images were classified into N1 (normal), N2 (reflecting atrophy), N3, P1 (AD pattern), P2 (FTD pattern), P3, and P1+ (DLB pattern) (8). No one presented N3 or P3 in this study. The DLB pattern criteria was interpreted in a broader sense to include cases with occipital hypometabolism extending to neighboring areas even if typical temporoparietal hypometabolism was not observed. The FDG images were also quantified with AD t-sum (9) using the module PALZ in the PMOD software package (Ver. 3.2; PMOD Technologies, Zurich, Switzerland), which were then converted into PET score  that reflects the severity of temporoparietal hypometabolism (AD pattern).
The FTP images were interpreted and classified into AD negative, AD+ and AD++, according to the vendor’s criteria that regards cortical uptake except anterior temporal as AD-related (https://pi.lilly.com/us/tauvid-uspi.pdf). The FTP-PET was also analyzed with MUBADA-PERSI method to derive SUVR over the area affected by AD process (posterior temporal, occipital, parietal and part of frontal cortex) with white matter as a reference (11, 12).
Whenever possible, each subject was followed up every year with a general clinical interview with neuropsychological tests, an MRI scan, and an FDG-PET scan. As a result, 1-year follow-up data were acquired on 32 subjects, and 2-year follow-up on 5 subjects.
Because the number of subjects was small, descriptive results were presented in general. Proportion of positivity was compared between groups using chi-square tests, in which EMCI and LMCI were combined to increase the number of observations. Statistical tests were also performed on the Pearson correlation coefficient between two variables.
Findings of each subject
Table 1 describes findings of each subject as classified according to the ATN concept. In this study, amyloid (A) was interpreted as positive (A+) when either PET or CSF Aβ was positive. Tau (T) was interpreted as positive (T+) when either PET or CSF P-tau was positive; negative (T-) when either of them was obtained and neither of them were positive; and was “na” (not available) (Tna) when neither of them were obtained. Neurodegeneration (N) was interpreted as positive (N+) when the consensus visual read of FDG-PET showed a progressive pattern (P1, P2, or P1+), and negative (N-) when it was a non-progressive pattern (N1 or N2).
The amyloid positivity rate was 13/38 overall (6/26 CU, 4/7 EMCI, 3/5 LMCI, p>0.05 between CU and MCI), while it was 8/38 based on the PET alone (3/26 CU, 2/7 EMCI, 3/5 LMCI, p>0.05 between CU and MCI).
Tau was positive for 7, negative for 2 and not available for 4 out of the 13 A+ subjects, being 2, 2, 2 and 5, 0, 2 out of the 6 A+ CU and 7 A+ MCI subjects, respectively.
FDG-PET showed a progressive pattern in 6/13 A+ subjects (3/6 CU, 1/4 EMCI, 2/3 LMCI) as compared to 3/25 A- subjects (0/20 CU, 1/3 EMCI, 2/2 LMCI). Significant difference was observed in the FDG-PET positivity (N+) proportion between A+ and A- (p<0.05) as well as between CU (3/26) and MCI (6/12) (p<0.05).
Of interest, tau was positive for as many as 8 (negative for 8, not available for 9) out of the 25 amyloid negative subjects, indicating tau deposition without AD pathological process. It should be noted that all the 8 A-T+ subjects was tau positive due to CSF test, in spite of negative tau PET for two of them.
Association of APOE genotypes with amyloid PET (p>0.6) or CSF Aβ (p>0.5), or with any other biomarkers, was not observed for the presence of E4, probably due to the small number of subjects.
Figures 1 (#24, LMCI) and 2 (#22, CU) depict a case with prodromal AD (A+T+N+) and preclinical AD (A+T+N-), respectively. PET and CSF were discordant for “A” and/or “T” in both cases, which may be related to visually equivocal images and near-cutoff level quantified values. In the case of Figure 2, CSF P-tau was positive while tau PET was negative, consistent with the report of earlier and more sensitive positivity of CSF P-tau than tau-PET in the AD continuum (13).
Four cases (1 CU, 1 EMCI, 2 LMCIs) showed a mild/partial DLB pattern in FDG-PET marked with “P1+” in Table 1, featuring hypometabolism in the occipital cortex extending into surrounding areas but not showing a typical AD pattern of temporo-parietal hypometabolism. Amyloid was positive for 3/4 and tau was positive for 4/4. Figure 3 (#26, CU) depicts one of them.
Amyloid PET with PiB was visually negative, as the left parietal mild accumulation did not reach the cortical surface (arrow). However, the subject was classified as “A+” because quantitative analysis revealed SUVR (1.57) above cutoff. The CSF Aβ was negative (399.8 pg/mL). The FTP-PET showed abnormal tau accumulation in the left posterior temporal lobe (arrow), typical of AD process. Note off-target uptake of FTP in choroid plexus (arrowheads), substantia nigra, and striatum. The FDG-PET was read as temporo-parietal hypometabolism indicating AD pattern in the baseline that progressed in two years (arrows). PET score and MRI z-score also increased in two years: from 0.76 to 1.08 and from 2.7 to 3.2, respectively.
PiB-PET revealed positive amyloid accumulation in the left temporal and parietal areas (arrows). Tau PET with FTP acquired 1 year later was negative, because mild activity along the cortical rim was interpreted as off-target uptake by the meninges (short arrows) and that the left anterior temporal uptake was considered non-pathological within the AD continuum (long arrow). CSF P-tau was positive. FDG-PET showed a normal pattern.
FBP-PET presented negative amyloid, and tau was negative in FTP-PET, although CSF showed positive Aβ (317.9pg/mL) and P-tau (38.2pg/mL). FDG-PET revealed a DLB pattern, presenting occipital hypometabolism (long arrows) extending to the right temporal and parietal cortex (short arrows), which progressed 1 year later. Note cingulate island sign denoting preserved metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex (arrowheads).
Association between PET and CSF
For the 18 subjects, in which CSF data were obtained, amyloid positivity by CSF agreed with that by PET in 12 cases while 6 showed a discordance (Table 1). The rate of discordance was consistent with previous reports and may be caused by various factors (13).
Quantified tau uptake (SUVR) measured with FTP-PET using MUBADA-PERSI method was significantly correlated with CSF P-tau (r=0.92, p<0.001, n=8) (Figure 4). Although the cutoff for SUVR with MUBADA-PERSI SUVR is not established yet, the visual read of the FTP-PET was positive only for two of them. In CSF P-tau, however, 7 out of the 8 subjects showed P-tau above the cutoff level, indicating a discordance in the tau positivity between PET and CSF. This is consistent with recent investigations that reported earlier or more sensitive positivity of CSF P-tau than tau-PET in the AD continuum (i.e. in amyloid positive subjects), because secretion of soluble p-tau to CSF is increased by Aβ pathology before tau begins to accumulate in the brain (14).
Red marks indicate PET-positive cases by visual read. Arrow indicates cutoff value for CSF P-tau.
PET/CSF discordance for amyloid and tau
This study suffers limitations such as the small number of subjects, poor follow-up records, and lack of tau-PET and CSF measurement for a large fraction of the subjects. However, some findings are notable.
The rate of amyloid positivity based on the combination of PET and CSF (6/26=23% for CU, 7/12=58% for MCI) was consistent with previous reports including J-ADNI. Discordance of positivity between amyloid-PET and CSF Aβ was observed in 6 subjects (5 PET-/CSF+, 1 PET+/CSF-), suggesting higher sensitivity of CSF, which was also consistent with the ADNI data on CU and MCI (13).
The rate of tau positivity was 4/6 for amyloid PET-/CSF Aβ+ or amyloid PET+/CSF Aβ-, and 2/2 for amyloid PET+/CSF Aβ+ in this study (Table 1). This was agreeable with the above ADNI data, in which the former two groups presented significantly lower CSF p-tau and PET-measured tau deposition than the latter and suggested earlier manifestations of AD process (13).
It is known that CSF p-tau is quantitatively associated with PET-measured tau deposition, especially in the AD continuum, and that CSF p-tau rises in the earlier stage than the pathological uptake of FTP-PET accrues (14). The result of the present study indicated a similar association in spite of the small number of subjects (Figure 4), in which FTP-PET was quantified with MUBADA, and that CSF p-tau was more sensitive than visual read of FTP-PET. In the early phase of AD continuum, CSF p-tau and FTP-PET could be considered to reflect different pathological changes, as the former may indicate excess secretion of p-tau to CSF and the latter represents tissue tau deposition. The present study adopted the criteria of visual FTP-PET interpretation to determine the positivity, by which the anterior temporal FTP uptake was considered insignificant. Because MUBADA VOI covers wide cortical areas, it may not be a sensitive measure of early tau deposition in the AD continuum that begins in the temporal cortex. Although a recent study suggests the earliest tau deposition at the rhinal cortex located in the anteromedial temporal lobe (15), it was hard to quantify the pathological FTP uptake in that region due to off-target binding to the choroid plexus in the present study (Figure 2). In that sense, use of FTP was another limitation of this study. Tau PET drugs with little off-target binding such as 18F-MK-6240 or 18F-PI-2620 may be more suitable for evaluation of the earliest stage of AD.
In this study only visual assessment of FDG-PET was used to evaluate the “N” (neurodegeneration) marker, and quantitative PET score was not used so that one “N-” subject presented a high PET score (#4). Although CSF T-tau and MRI-volumetry are also regarded as an N-marker, their association with FDG-PET remains to be investigated as they represent different pathophysiology.
Hypometabolism depicted by FDG-PET reflects reduced neuronal activity in general, regardless of pathophysiology. No subjects showed A+T-N+ in this study, which agrees with the concept of tau deposition leading to neurodegeneration in AD continuum, although such manifestation, if occurred, might have suggested combined AD and non-AD processes. Outside the AD continuum (A-), however, FDG-PET neurodegeneration was positive in 3/5 MCI (2/2 LMCI) subjects and was not observed in CU subjects (0/20), which is consistent with the above notion and agrees with previous reports (16).
A large number of subjects presented quantitative measures and/or visual read that are close to the borderline of binary positivity in the present study, which caused, at least partly, discordance between PET and CSF in amyloid and/or tau, such as the cases in Figures 1 and 2. This is understandable because most of the subjects in the present study were in the early phase of AD continuum or of a non-AD disease if any, and that the current criteria and cutoff level have been derived from differential diagnosis of AD patients from CU subjects. To deal with early-phase subjects having no or very mild cognitive impairment, the criteria and cutoff level of the biomarkers may need refining, and the data acquisition may need strict quality control.
The present study revealed 8 A-T+ subjects. Because two of them (#37, #38) were LMCI patients and showed AD or DLB pattern in FDG-PET, they are considered SNAP and to have cognitive impairment due to non-AD disorders (17). The other six are CU subjects and had non-progressive FDG pattern, and may suggest a very early stage of various non-AD tauopathy such as PART or normal aging process (17). There is also a possibility of false-positive CSF P-tau as the value was close to the cutoff, ranging 31.8-38.2 pg/mL for 5 of the 6 subjects. Since biomarkers in non-AD tauopathies are not well understood, further investigations are needed.
Another EMCI subject (#36) presented “A-T-N+” with FTD pattern in FDG-PET, and was suspected of early stage of non-amyloid non-tau FTLD.
The present study also revealed 4 subjects presenting DLB pattern in FDG-PET, with occipital hypometabolism extending to surrounding areas (Figure 3). Three of them were amyloid positive and all were tau positive. It is not clear whether they were preclinical or prodromal stage of atypical AD, or DLB with or without amyloid deposition.
These findings suggest that a significant fraction of the subjects in this study might be related to non-AD disorders such as DLB, SNAP, PART, argyrophilic grain disease (AGD), and TDP-43 proteinopathy (like LATE) (17). Even if they are amyloid positive, there is a possibility of incidental amyloid deposition. Therefore, possibility of non-AD disorders should always be considered when clinical trials targeting preclinical or prodromal AD are designed and subjects are selected based on the biomarkers.
In conclusion, this study confirmed the known changes of PET and CSF biomarkers in preclinical and prodromal AD, and at the same time, suggested difficulties of determining the criteria and cutoff level of those biomarkers to evaluate such subjects as well as the possibility of unsolicited inclusion of early-phase non-AD disorders.
Acknowledgements: We are grateful for the materials and technical supports for the PET imaging by Fujifilm Toyama Chemical, Avid Radiopharmaceuticals/Eli Lilly Japan, and GE Healthcare. PET centers that imaged the subjects but did not belong to the clinical site that enrolled the subjects are also acknowledged, including Tohoku University Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tsukuba Advanced Imaging Center (AIC), Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG), Aizawa Hospital, MI Clinic, and Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital (KCGH). We thank all the people who participated in this study in the clinical and imaging sites as well as in the Core sites.
Conflict of interest: The following conflicts of interest are disclosed by the authors. Senda reports provision of devices, cassettes, and precursors from Avid/Eli Lilly Japan and GE, funding as PI of clinical trials sponsored by Eli Lilly, Eisai, Biogen, Cerveau and Merck, as well as leadership role in the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine as board member, congress chair and committee chair. Ikeuchi reports grants from AMED (JP19dk0207020, JP20dk0202028, JP20dm0207073). Matsuda reports a grant from AMED (19dk0207020h0005), intramural grants from National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, and an entrusted research fund from Nihon Medi-Physics Co. Ltd. Iwatsubo reports a grant from an anonymous Foundation. Iwata reports grants from AMED (19dk0207020h0005, 16dk0207028h0001). Ikari is a full time employee of CMIC Inc. as well as graduate student of Osaka University. Washizuka reports research funding from AMED and pharmaceutical companies including Otsuka, Eisai, Pfizer, Daiichi-Sankyo, Tsumura, Mochida, Astellas, Shionogi, Takeda, Sumitomo-Dainippon, as well as honoraria from such pharmaceutical companies. Kazunari Ishii reports honoraria from Nihon Medi-Physics. Yokota reports licensing and collaboration research with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company. Nakanishi reports research funding from Eisai and Elli Lilly Japan as well as leadership role as a director in the Japan Society for Dementia Research. Shimada reports grants from AMED (19dk0207020h0005, 20dk0207028h0005). The other authors have nothing to disclose.
Funding: This study was financially supported by grants from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) 19dk0207020h0005, 20dk0202028h0005 and 20dm0207073h003, as well as by an anonymous Foundation.
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