CEREAL INTAKE INCREASES AND DAIRY PRODUCTS DECREASE RISK OF COGNITIVE DECLINE AMONG ELDERLY FEMALE JAPANESE
R. Otsuka, Y. Kato, Y. Nishita, C. Tange, M. Nakamoto, M. Tomida, T. Imai, F. Ando, H. Shimokata
J Prev Alz Dis 2014;1(3):160-167
BACKGROUND: If cognitive decline can be prevented through
changes in daily diet with no medical intervention, it will be
highly significant for dementia prevention.
OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study examined the associations of different food intakes on cognitive decline among Japanese subjects.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based study.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 298 males and 272 females aged 60 to 81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study (third to seventh wave) at least one time.
MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in all study waves. Nutritional intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record in the second wave. Cumulative data among participants with an MMSE >27 in the second wave were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for an MMSE score ≤27 in each study wave according to a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of each food intake at baseline were estimated, after adjusting for age, follow-up time, MMSE score at baseline, education, body mass index, annual household income, current smoking status, energy intake, and history of diseases.
RESULTS: In men, after adjusting for age, and follow-up period, MMSE score at baseline, the adjusted OR for a decline in MMSE score was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42; p=0.032) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake. After adjusting for education and other confounding variables, the OR for a decrease in MMSE score did not reach statistical significance for this variable. In women, multivariate adjusted OR for MMSE decline was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.15-1.77; p=0.001) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65-0.98; p=0.034) with a 1-SD increase in milk and dairy product intake.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that a 1-SD (108 g/day) decrease in cereal intake and a 1-SD (128 g/day) increase in milk and dairy product intake may have an influence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling Japanese women aged 60 years and older. Further studies are needed in order to explore the potential causal relationship.
R. Otsuka ; Y. Kato ; Y. Nishita ; C. Tange ; M. Nakamoto ; M. Tomida ; T. Imai ; F. Ando ; H. Shimokata (2014): CEREAL INTAKE INCREASES AND DAIRY PRODUCTS DECREASE RISK OF COGNITIVE DECLINE AMONG ELDERLY FEMALE JAPANESE. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2014.29