THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 1, APOLIPOPROTEIN E Ε4, LIFESTYLE FACTORS, AND THE AGING BODY AND BRAIN
S.A. Galle, I.K. Geraedts, J.B. Deijen, M.V. Milders, M.L. Drent
J Prev Alz Dis 2020;4(7):265-273
Aging is associated with a decrease in body and brain function and with a decline in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. The observed associations between alterations in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and cognitive functioning and Mild Cognitive Impairment suggest that altered insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling may accompany Alzheimer’s disease or is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent animal research has suggested a possible association between insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer’s disease. It is therefore hypothesized that a reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling may moderate the vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease of human Apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. We address the impact of age-related decline of insulin-like growth factor 1 levels on physical and brain function in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease and discuss the links between insulin-like growth factor 1 and the Apolipoprotein E ε4 polymorphism. Furthermore, we discuss lifestyle interventions that may increase insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels, including physical activity and adherence to a protein rich diet and the possible benefits to the physical fitness and cognitive functioning of the aging population.
S.A. Galle ; I.K. Geraedts ; J.B. Deijen ; M.V. Milders ; M.L. Drent (2020): The Interrelationship between Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1, Apolipoprotein E ε4, Lifestyle Factors, and the Aging Body and Brain. The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (JPAD). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.11